1. Topical Vitamin C on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo by Philippe G. Humbert.

2. ColvenR M, Pinnell S R. Topical vitamin C in aging. ClinDermatol 1996: 14: 227-234.



5. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin.ShindoY, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L J Invest Dermatol. 1994 Jan; 102(1):122-4.

6. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications Firas Al-Niaimi, et all


1. Vitamin E inhibits the UVA induction of “light” and “dark” cyclobutanepyrimidine dimers, and oxidatively generated DNA damage, in keratinocytes George J. Delinasios, % shown above from this study, is highest protection expressed as lower Free Radical production and reduction of DNA damage generated by oxidation induced by UV exposure at various wavelengths and multiple skin layers.

2. Singh U, Devaraj S, JialalI. Vitamin E, oxidative stress, and inflammation. AnnuRev Nutr. 2005;25:151–174. 

3. 44. TappelAL. Vitamin E as the biological lipid antioxidant. Vitamins and Hormones. 1962;20:493–510. 

58. Yoshida Y, Niki E, Noguchi N. Comparative study on the action of tocopherols and tocotrienols as antioxidant: chemical and physical effects. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 2003;123:63–75. 

57. Suzuki YJ, Tsuchiya M, WassallSR, Choo YM, GovilG, Kagan VE, Packer L. Structural and dynamic membrane properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol: implication to the molecular mechanism of their antioxidant potency. Biochemistry. 1993;32:10692–10699. 

52. Mukai K, KageyamaY, Ishida T, Fukuda K, Okabe K, HososeH. Synthesis and kinetic study of antioxidant activity of new tocopherol (vitamin E) compounds. J Org Chem. 1989;54:552–556.

39. Moeller VH, AnsmannA, WallatS. Topical application of vitamin E and its effects on the skin. Fett WissenschaftTechnol. 1989;91:295–305.

40. Gensler HL, AickinM, Peng YM, Xu M. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. NutrCancer. 1996;26:183–191.

41. Trevithick JR, Shum DT, RedaeS, et al. Reduction of sunburn damage to skin by topical application of vitamin E acetate following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation: effect of delaying application or of reducing concentration of vitamin E acetate applied. Scanning Microsc. 1993;7:1269–1281